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2004 May;25(4):157-62.The relationships between half-life (t1/2) and mean residence time (MRT) in the two-compartment open body model.1, .Author information1Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.AbstractRATIONALE: In the one-compartment model following i.v. administration the mean residence time (MRT) of a drug is always greater than its half-life (t(1/2)). However, following i.v. administration, drug plasma concentration (C) versus time (t) is best described by a two-compartment model or a two exponential equation:C=Ae(-alpha t)+Be(-beta t), where A and B are concentration unit-coefficients and alpha and beta are exponential coefficients. The relationships between t(1/2) and MRT in the two-compartment model have not been explored and it is not clear whether in this model too MRT is always greater than t(1/2).METHODS: In the current paper new equations have been developed that describe the relationships between the terminal t(1/2) (or t(1/2 beta)) and MRT in the two-compartment model following administration of i.v. bolus, i.v. infusion (zero order input) and oral administration (first order input).RESULTS: A critical value (CV) equals to the quotient of (1-ln2) and (1-beta/alpha) (CV=(1-ln2)/(1-beta/alpha)=0.307/(1-beta/alpha)) has been derived and was compared with the fraction (f(1)) of drug elimination or AUC (AUC-area under C vs t curve) associated with the first exponential term of the two-compartment equation (f(1)=A/alpha/AUC). Following i.v. bolus, CV ranges between a minimal value of 0.307 (1-ln2) and infinity. As long as f(1)<CV,MRT>t(1/2) and vice versa, and when f(1)=CV, then MRT=t(1/2). Following i.v. infusion and oral administration the denominator of the CV equation does not change but its numerator increases to (0.307+beta T/2) (T-infusion duration) and (0.307+beta/ka) (ka-absorption rate constant), respectively. Examples of various drugs are provided.CONCLUSIONS: For every drug that after i.v. bolus shows two-compartment disposition kinetics the following conclusions can be drawn (a) When f(1)<0.307, then f(1)<CV and thus, MRT>t(1/2). (b) When beta/alpha>ln2, then CV>1>f(1) and thus(,) MRT>t(1/2). (c) When ln2>beta/alpha>(ln4-1), then 1>CV>0.5 and thus, in order for t(1/2)>MRT, f(1) has to be greater than its complementary fraction f(2) (f(1)>f(2)). (d) When beta/alpha<(ln4-1), it is possible that t(1/2)>MRT even when f(2)>f(1), as long as f(1)>CV. (e) As beta gets closer to alpha, CV approaches its maximal value (infinity) and therefore, the chances of MRT>t(1/2) are growing. (f) As beta becomes smaller compared with alpha, beta/alpha approaches zero, the denominator approaches unity and consequently, CV gets its minimal value and thus, the chances of t(1/2)>MRT are growing. (g) Following zero and first order input MRT increases compared with i.v. bolus and so does CV and thus, the chances of MRT>t(1/2) are growing.Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.PMID: 15108218 DOI: [Indexed for MEDLINE] MeSH termsMeSH termsLinkOut - more resourcesFull Text SourcesWileyOther Literature SourcesCited by Patents in - The Lens. Moved Permanently. The document has moved here.. This video is unavailable. Watch Queue Queue. Watch Queue Queue.

A practical application of this occurs for example for random walks, since the probability for the time of the last visit to the origin in a random walk is distributed as the arcsine distribution Beta(1/2, 1/2): the mean of a number of realizations of a random walk is a much more robust estimator than the median (which is an inappropriate . This beta would not be possible without the efforts of the community members who have activity helped in testing, reporting issues and submitting fixes! Thank You! If you are interested in participating in the 1.2 Beta please visit the Community Forums Beta Section for more information. Cacti 1.2.0 Beta Enhancements. Beta is a measure of the volatility, or systematic risk, of a security or a portfolio in comparison to the market as a whole. Beta is used in the capital asset pricing model (CAPM).. Re: [FS19] Patch 1.1.2 Beta Post by County 1174 » Sun Nov 25, 2018 9:45 am Problem seems to b that everyone is having different problems with the inputs just now, my g29 has worked since day 1 no issues with it, only issue I have is that the game seems to “forget” 2or 3 key bindings on my 3D pro, and I can’t set a trigger+ axis, but I can work around them for now, bit annoying tho. . .